• Aslam Abdullah

Glancing over the Quran in the Order the Prophet received it: Part Four

81. An-Nazi'at (Those that Rise) (79)

Makkah

An-Naziat is the 81st Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it appears as 79th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is a Makki Surah, and it comprises 46 Ayah spread in two Ruku. It focuses on affirming the truth, the resurrection of human beings, and life after death. It alludes to the fact that it is the worldly life that determines how everyone would be in their new place after resurrection judgment. It refers to the story of Prophet Moses and his struggle against Pharaoh. It warns people against an arrogant attitude.

82. Al-Infitar (The Cleaving Asunder) (82)

Makkah

Al-Infitar is the 82nd Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it is also the 82nd in the traditionally arranged Quran. Revealed in Makkah, it has 19 Ayah and one Ruku. Its theme is the resurrection. It asks human beings to review his or her understanding of his purpose and role in this life. If they believe that life has no meaning and are free to do whatever they want, their lives will not prove worthy for them and others. If they think that it has a purpose, and the divine guidance enables a person to achieve that purpose, then the resurrection would enrich their new phase of life. It reminds people that everything they do in this world is in Allah's purview, and humans cannot deny them.

83. Al-Inshiqaq (The Splitting Asunder) (84)

Makkah

In order of revelation, Al-Inshiqaq is the 83rd Surah, and in its arrangement in the Quran, it is the 84th Surah. It has 25 Ayah and one Ruku. It describes the end time. It reminds human beings that their actions are secure, and justice is absolute on the day of judgment. If they were right in this life, they would move into a comfortable phase of their new existence, and if wrong, they would become stagnant and face the punishment. It invites people to reflect on the Quranic message of the oneness of God.

84. Ar-Rum (The Byzantines) (30)

Makkah

Ar-Rum is the 84th Surah revealed upon the Quran, and it is the 30th in the traditionally arranged Quran. Revealed in Makkah, it has 60 Ayah and six Ruku. It explains the philosophy of the rise and fall of nations. It tells us that the conditions do not always stay the same. Changes take place continually. Those who are in power lose their power, and those who were powerless may gain influence. It predicts the victory of Romans, who were defeated by the Persians. It also establishes the principle that faith does not isolate its believers from the happenings around them. It tells people to reflect on the process of creation and learn from nature. It talks about establishing justice and practicing charity. It asks people to respect the institution of family and make love and compassion part of the family relations. The spouses help each other overcome their weaknesses instead of competing to prove their superiority over each other. Finally, it reminds people of the day of judgment.

85. Al-'Ankabut (The Spider) (29)

Makkah

Al-Ankabut is the 85th Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and in the traditionally arranged Quran, it appears as the 29th Quran. Revealed in Makkah, and it has 69 Ayah and seven Ruku. Life is not always a bed of roses. Human beings go through ups and downs in life. Those who have faith in Allah face and have faced trials in their times. The followers of Prophet Muhammad should not be afraid of going through such trials. It would strengthen them and prepare them to deal with such trials effectively. Ultimately, they are the ones who will overcome such hardships because non-believers and the deniers of the truth would suffer the consequences of their actions.

86. Al-Mutaffifin (Those who give short measures) (83)

Makkah

The 83rd Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran is the 86th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was the last Surah revealed in Makkah, and it has 36 Ayah and one Ruku. It establishes the principle that faith covers all aspects of life. One cannot be a true believer if one's entire life is not guided by it. It refers to business practices and warns of dishonesty in trade relations and warns of the consequences. It explains that justice will prevail, and if people manage to deceive people in this world for their wrongs, they will face judgment in the life hereafter.

87. Al-Baqarah (The Cow) (2)

Medina

The 87th Surah revealed upon the Prophet is Al-Baqarah and is the second Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran, and it is the longest Surah in the Quran. It has 286 Ayah divided into 40 Ruku. It is the first one to be revealed in Medina, and it deals with issues about the emerging society concerning law, morality, economy, polity, interfaith relations, and security of citizens. It speaks of three categories of people, genuine believers, conscious rejecters of the faith, the hypocrites. Those who genuinely believe in the divine guidance follow the divine guidance. Those who reject the faith consciously will never accept the truth because, in their mind, they have the conviction that they were right. The hypocrites watch the situation and move in either direction, depending on their interests. It narrates the story of the beginning of humanity and refers to the hate and arrogance of Satan to the divine guidance. It assures people of the advice that would be sent through messengers to show humans the right path. It refers to the Jews' covenant with God about living their lives according to the divine teachings. It explains how Jews broke the covenant. It describes the process of the creation of the House to worship one God. It also focuses on family matters, transparency in one's dealings with others. It asks people to be truthful to their vows, and it draws people's attention to the past when the divine message was changed and edited to suit the interests of those who were the power elites. It emphasizes establishing a society free from usury, exploitation, and oppression.

88. Al-Anfal (Spoils of War) (8)

Medina

Al-Anfal is the 88th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It appears as the eighth Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. Revealed in Medina, in the second year of migration and after the battle, it has 75 Ayah divided in 10 Ruku. It advises believers to maintain good interpersonal relations and explains the rules of engagements between Muslims and others. It refers to the wealth and resources that the enemies of Muslims left behind after the battles. It provides a rationale of just war, and it demands steadfastness from those who are among believers. It also advises on how to deal with prisoners of war. It reminds people that obedience of God and the Prophet are part of the faith, and believers must always be ready to sacrifice everything for truth. Justice is the essence of faith, and Muslims must be the seekers of justice for themselves and others. Defending the neglected and the poor is the responsibility of Muslims


89. Surah 'Al 'Imran (The House of Imran) (3)

Medina

In the traditionally arranged Quran, Al-Imran is the third Surah, but it is the 89th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina. It is one of those Surahs came in phases. Revealed in Medina, and it has 200 Ayah and 20 Ruku. It refers to the struggles of Prophets Moses and Aaron and narrates the story of Mary and Prophet Jesus. The Surah offers a critique of Christian religious thoughts concerning monotheism and the institution of prophethood. It delves into details on some of Islam's pillars, such as Monotheism, Salat, Zakat, and Hajj. It warns against usury. It also defines Jihad in its fullest meaning. It asks the community of believers to always be on guard and never show negligence in living divine guidance. It invites people of the book to agree on a minimum plan to serve God. It refutes the Christian idea of the divinity of Jesus. It also urges the believers to take care of the poor, and the neglected in the world and reminds Muslims that they are not a sect but the bearer of a universal message sent to benefit every human being.

90. Al-Ahzab (The Confederates) (33)

Medina

Al-Ahzab is the 90th Surah revealed upon the Prophet and the 33rd in the traditionally arranged Quran. It has 73 Ayah spread out in nine sections. It refers to some of the social issues that Medina's changing society was facing after the introduction of Islam. It raises the hijab of women, marriage traditions, children's adoption, and the place of sincerity in establishing a just society. It asks humanity to learn from the Prophet's character, who is a role model for all. It sets the principle of equality of men and women in Allah's eyes and reassures the people that gender does not discriminate any human in the divine scheme. Men and women are both created by Allah, and he equally blesses them

91. Al-Mumtahinah (The Examined One) (60)

Medina

Al-Mumtahinah is the 60th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was the 91st Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina, after the peace treaty between Muslims and the non-believers of Makkah at the site of Hudaybiyah, it has 13 Ayah and 2 Ruku. It is the 91st Surah in the chronology of the descend. It reminds Muslims that the faith is given to them by Prophet Muhammad from the universe's creator. It should not be contaminated or mixed with the messages that claim to be divine, yet have elements included to secure the interest of power elites. In matters of faith, guidance comes only from God. However, it advises believers to maintain healthy and normal relations with those who do not subscribe to their ideas.

92. Anl-Nisa' (Women) (4)

Medina

An-Nisa is the 92nd Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it occurs as the fourth Surah in the Quran. Revealed in Medina, and it has 176 Ayah spread in 24 Ruku. It informs people of the process that enabled Muslims to develop an Islamic society in Medina, explains the theology in similar terms to Jews, Christians, and polytheists, and inspires them to share their faith with others. It establishes rules for making family ties stronger and defines roles for men and women in society and husband and wife in a family. It describes the laws of inheritance. It challenges the practice of treating women like property and asserts they are human and have equal rights, including rights in the ownership of property. It asks believers to struggle to establish justice for all. It urges them to respect human life. It warns against the designs of hypocrites and those who want to disturb social peace. It also defines rules for making ablution before prayers, shortening prayers during travels. It gives glad tidings to believers and assures them that their reward is with the universe's Lord.


93. Al-Zilzal (The earthquake) (99)

Medina

In the traditionally arranged Quran, Al-Zilzal is the 99th Surah, and in the chronology of revelation, it is the 93rd. Revealed has eight ayahs in one Ruku. It focuses on the day of judgment and assures human beings that ultimate justice would come then. Every action would be out in the open, and those who did well would get rewarded, and those who were evil punished.

94. Al-Hadid (Iron) (57)

Medina

Al-Hadid is the 94th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. In the traditionally arranged Quran, it appears as the 57th Surah. Revealed in Medina, it has 29 Ayah divided into four Ruku. Its central theme is the security of the citizens' safety of the state of Medina that was under constant attack of non-believers. It reminds people of this world's short and delusional life and asks people to prepare them for the life hereafter that would be permanent and everlasting. It describes justice as the cornerstone of the Prophetic mission and encourages the believers to do well in this life to earn a better life in the Hereafter.

95. Muhammad (47)

Medina

Surah Muhammad is the 47th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran, and it was the 95th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina it has 38 Ayah in four Ruku. It asks believers to be firm in their faith and struggle to establish divine guidance in their personal, family, and social life. It assures the believers that they would be the ultimate winner as falsehood would disappear because truth cannot be defeated.


96. Ar-Ra'd (Thunder) (12)

Medina

Ar-Rad is the 13 Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was the 96th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Even though there are two opinions on its place of origin. The dominant view suggests that it is Mudinan origin. It has 43 Ayah in six Ruku. The universe and everything that exists point to the existence of God. Nature offers signs of God and his attributes. The faithful are the ones who understand the blessings as proof of the presence of God, and they earn their passage into the eternal Garden of Eden, and those who refuse to learn from the divine signs hurt them in the long run. But history offers enough evidence to suggest that truth is uncompromisable.


97. Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious) (55)

Medina

Ar-Rehman was the 97th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It is the 55th Surah of the Quran. It is believed by a good number of scholars to be the Madani Surah, even though a few say it is Makkan. It has 78 Ayah in three Ruku. It gives a detailed description of divine blessings and bounties bestowed upon human beings and tells the people that they cannot deny any of those as they are everywhere and beneficial. It reminds human beings of their temporary existence and assures them of a life of comfort in the Hereafter if they did well in this worldly life.

98. al-Insan or Ad- Dahr (Human being or Time) (76)

Medina

Al-Insan is the 76th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was the 98th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina, it has 31 Ayah and 2 Ruku. It reminds human beings of their origin, explaining that from a non-entity, they came into being with an identity endowed with the faculties of analysis and observation. It asks them to make sure of these faculties to reach to the truth and live by it. It urges them to help those who are downtrodden, the poor, and the neglected ones to ensure justice and prosperity.

99. At-Talaq (Divorce) (65)

Medina

At-Talaq is the 99th Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it is the 65th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. Revealed in Medina, it has 12 Ayah and 2 Ruku. This sura focuses on divorce rules in case husband and wife decide to separate after going through the process of reconciliation. It asks spouses to be mindful of each other's rights. It specifically asks husbands to ensure that the divorce does not lead to denying the wife's rights ensured by the Quran. These laws would make sense only if one believes in Allah and accepts the message delivered by Prophet Muhammad.

100. Surah al-Bayyinah (The Evidence of the Truth) (98)

Medina

At-Talaq is the 100th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Arranged as Surah 98 in the traditionally compiled Quran, and revealed in Medina, it has 8 Ayah in 1 Ruku. It revolves around the theme of the purity and clarity of the divine message given to humanity through Prophet Muhammad. The purpose of the Quran is to help human beings walk the straight and right path and avoid all those actions that deviate from that path. It reasserts the genuineness of the divine guidance and assures that God is the giver of advice.

Twenty Seventh Day

101. Al-Hashr (The Gathering) (59)

Medina

Al-Hashr is the 101st Surah revealed upon the Prophet and the 59th in the traditionally arranged Quran. Revealed in Medina, it has 24 Ayah in three Ruku. It refers to the manipulations hypocrites, and some non-Muslim tribes were involved in to reduce Muslims to a non-entity in Medina. They were afraid of Muslims' growing influence and believed that their relevance would become marginal. They were also fearful of the divine guidance's clarity and feared that their youngsters might feel attracted to it. It urges the believers to remain steadfast as God would not abandon them.

102. An-Nur (The Light) (24)

Medina

An-Nur is the 24th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is 102nd Surah in the order of revelation. Revealed in Medina, and it has 64 Ayah in nine Ruku. It specifies rules of gender relations and communications. It also prescribes the dress code for men and women. It describes slander and rumor-mongering acts that destroy the sanctity of human society. It defines rules of privacy for both men and women. It even explains the manners of entering one's residence. It prescribes punishment for adultery. It demands the believers' total loyalty to the Prophet and the message he was sharing with society.


103. Al-Hajj (Pilgrimage) (22)

Medina

Al-Hajj is the 103rd Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it appears as 22nd Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It has 76 Ayas. It refers to resurrection, and its logical reasoning gives warnings to those who deny the Hereafter. It speaks about the struggles against idolaters and polytheists. It invites people to verify the instructive fate of those who passed away, and the painful Divine punishments sent down upon them. It talks about the Hajj pilgrimage and its historical background. It is also about the struggles against the hostile invaders. It also advised upon different life fields, encourages people to pray, offers almsgiving, has trust, and has faith in Allah.


104. Al-Munafiqun (Hypocrites) (63)

Medina

Al-Munafiqoon is the 63 Surah of the traditionally arranged Quran. It is the 104th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina, it has 11 Ayah and two Ruku. It explains the dangers of hypocrisy and warns against it. It says that hypocrites create conditions for the destabilization of a moral society because, based on their interests, personal or political, they hurt the sincere and the upright people. It reminds believers to understand the true intentions o hypocrites and do not accept their leadership.


105. Al-Mujadalah (The Pleading) (58)

Medina

Al-Mujadalah is he 58th Surah of the traditionally arranged Quran, and it is the 105th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina, it has 22 Ayah divided into three Ruku, and is a critique on social customs that defy logic and divine guidance. It specifically refers to an old tribal tradition where someone would refer to his wife as his mother and get rid of her without divorcing her. It was a custom to torture one's wife and treat her like a commodity at her husband's discretion. It warns against such practice and, in a way, recommended that every social custom should look objectively in its relevance with the divine guidance. It also refers to the ill effect hypocrites bring upon society.


106. Al-Hujurat (Private Chambers) (49)

Medina

Al-Hujurat is the 106th Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it occurs as the 49th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. Revealed in Medina, it has 18 Ayah and 2 Ruku. It specifies the morals and manners necessary to build a peaceful and cohesive society. It also described the need to show respect to the leadership and listen to its family and social life guidance. It reminds people that without showing respect to the Prophet, their commitment to God would remain incomplete.


107. At-Tahrim (Prohibition) (66)

Medina

At-Tahrim is the 66th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is the 107th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina, it has 12 Ayah and 2 Ruku. It emphasizes the importance of accepting Allah as the supreme lawgiver. He alone is the one who can declare things permitted and not permitted or Halal and Haram. It also advises that the divine rules are also applicable in every aspect of life, including conjugal relations. It tells that faith and God-consciousness must reflect their impact on family and public relations.


108. At-Taghabun (Loss and Gain) (64)

Medina

At-Taghabun is the 64th in the traditionally arranged Quran, and it is the 108th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina, it has 18 Ayah and 2 Ruku. Its central theme is that everything created by Allah has a purpose. The divine guidance enables humans to understand their purpose in life and use other creations for promoting righteousness. It alludes to the consequences of evil deeds and deviating from the spiritual path. It encourages the believers to keep their intentions pure to bring effectiveness in their actions.


109. As-Saff (The Ranks) (61)

As-Saff is the 109th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina, it is the 61st Surah in the Quran. It has 14 Ayah in two Ruku. It emphasizes the strength of faith in countering the opposition and encourages believers to remain steadfast on the path of truth. It draws people's attention to Moses and Jesus's followers, who broke their covenant with God and suffered the consequences. It asks believers to remain hopeful of the support of Allah to their cause.


110. Al-Jumu'ah (The Congregation) (62)

Medina

Al-Jumah is the 62nd Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is the 110th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina, and it has 11 Ayah and two Ruku. It establishes the principle that knowledge without actions does not produce desired results. It refers to previous religious communities who were knowledgeable but devoid of effects. It emphasizes the importance of Friday congregational prayers. It suggests that their sustenance is in Allah's hands, and the blessings would enable them to create an environment where they can earn subsistence from God in abundance.

111. Al-Fath (Victory) (48)

Medina

Al-Fath is the 111th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. In the traditionally arranged Quran, it occurs as 62nd Surah. Revealed in Medina, it has 29 Ayah and four Ruku. It heralds the coming of a new world created under the Prophet's leadership based on divine guidance. It refers to the peace treaty of Hudaybiyah and describes it as the foundation for this victory. It exposes hypocrites and their false allegations. It recognizes the sacrifices given by the believers in the establishment of such a community and society based on the idea of submission to Allah, and it informs the future generations of the struggle they must engage in to ensure the continuity of the success that occurred during the time of the Prophet and his companions.


112. Al-Ma'idah (The Repast) (5)

Medina

Al-Maidah is the 5th Surah according to the arrangement of the Qur'an and 112th according to the order of revelation. Revealed in Medina, and it has 120 Ayah and 16 Ruku. It has the verse no 5:3 that is said to be the last verse revealed upon the Prophet. It revolves around the theme that Allah's faith is complete, and gives guidance to human beings. It refers to the movements led by Moses and Jesus to bring out the truth to their people and urges their Jews and Christians to be attentive to the message delivered by Prophet Muhammad as it testifies to what was in Torah and Injeel. It reminds believers that justice is the essence of divine guidance, and believers must preserve even if it goes against oneself. It also invites people to create a human brotherhood and sisterhood and build a society based on love and compassion. It explains that the world created by the divine is for human beings' benefit, and they try to explore it based on their rational faculties and not on superstitions, false assumptions, and blind following. It also warns people of the ill effects of gambling, consuming intoxicants, and consuming food offered to deities and idols. Finally, it refutes the idea that Jesus was God or the son of God. He was a mighty messenger, and he delivered the divine message to the people known as Israelites to bring them back to the right path.

Thirtieth Day

113. At-Tawbah (Repentance) (9)

Medina

At-Tawbah is the ninth Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is the 113th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Revealed in Medina, it has 129 Ayah and 16 Ruku. It is the only Surah in the Quran that starts without Bismillah hir Rahman ar Rahim, a sentence that precedes all the other 113 Surah. It talks about the responses that become necessary when parties defy treaties and flout established norms. It asks believers to respond to such elements with courage and determination. It asks them to confront hostility and hypocrisy with strong faith and face. It also reminds people to guard the collective interests of people always.


114. An-Nasr (Succor) (110)

Medina

An-Nasr is the 114th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It is the 110th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. Revealed in Medina, it has 3 Ayah in one Ruku. It asks people to glorify the Lord, and it tells people to be aware of the new responsibilities they would be facing after the entrance of many new people to the ranks of believers. It asks them to be always in a state of humility, seeking protection in the divine guidance to remain committed to the idea of monotheism. It reasserts the divine attribute of accepting all those who understand that human beings may commit wrong, and it is God who forgives and provide protections. Thus the message that began with a call to create a knowledge-based society and community concludes with showing gratitude to God and expressing humility after the success and establishment of the truth within the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad.

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© Aslam Abdullah